Московский государственный университет печати

Чешкова Л.Г.


         

Английский язык

Задания по аннотированию и реферированию текстов полиграфического профиля


Чешкова Л.Г.
Английский язык
Начало
Печатный оригинал
Об электронном издании
Оглавление
1.

TEXT I. SUMMARISING

2.

TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

3.

TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

4.

TEXT IV.

5.

TEXT V.

6.

TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

7.

TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

8.

TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

9.

TEXT IX.

10.

TEXT X.

11.

TEXT XI.

12.

TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

13.

TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

14.

TEXT XIV.

15.

TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

16.

СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

I. Read the following words and word combinations.

  1. Adjectives:

    previous - предыдущий, предшествующий

  2. Nouns and word combinations:

    rule of unity - правилоединства
    strict rule - строгоеправило
    opening sentence - начальное предложение
    concluding sentence - заключительное предложение
    complex sentence - сложно-подчиненное предложение
    clause - придаточное предложение
    principal clause - главное предложение
    subordinate clause - придаточное предложение
    unity of purpose - единство цели
    paragraph - абзац
    theme - тема
    syn. subject - основная мысль
    arrangement - размещение, расположение
    syn. distribution - краткий комментарий (замечание) по...
    brief comment on - заключение, окончание
    conclusion - правило единства

  3. Verbs and combinations with them:

    to arrest the reader's attention - привлечь внимание читателя
    to deal with - иметь дело с ..., разбирать, излагать
    to drive a point home - довести что-либо до сознания читателя
    to embody - воплощать в себе
    to go beyond - выходить за рамки излагаемой темы;
    the scope of theme - «растекаться мыслью по древу»
    to keep in suspense - держать в напряжении
    to lead up to the theme by degrees - подводить к основной мысли постепенно
    to sum- up smth - дать резюме, подытожить

II. Read the following text. It will provide you with a strategy for working out the topic or theme of the paragraphs in articles you are to summarise.

STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

Theme of Paragraph. A paragraph consists of a series of sentences all explaining some main fact, and connected with one another in various ways by unity of purpose. The main fact thus explained, illustrated, or commented on, is called the theme.

Unity of Paragraph.

The paragraph deals with one subject at a time. The unity of paragraph is or ought to be protected by the theme; for the paragraph ought not to go beyond what the scope of the theme allows. The sentence embodying the theme holds the same kind of relation to the other sentences of the paragraph, that the principal clause of a complex sentence holds to the subordinate clause.

Positions of the Theme. There is no strict rule as to what the position of the theme should be: it might be at the beginning of the paragraph, or somewhere in the middle, or at the close. A theme given in the first sentence can be repeated in other words in the last or elsewhere, if such repetition is found useful for driving a point home, or for summing up what has gone before, or for any other purpose.

The beginning of the paragraph is the most natural position for the theme, and this positions is more commonly assigned than any other. The opening sentence, standing as it does at the head of all the rest, is the first to arrest the reader's attention.

Sometimes the theme is not given till towards the middle or even at the close of the paragraph. In this case the previous sentences are merely preparatory, leading up to the theme by degrees. Several purposes may be served by this arrangement. The intention of the writer may be to keep the reader's interest in suspense, or it may be his desire to lead the reader's mind by degrees to some conclusion, the full force of which could not have been understood without some preparatory stages.

The Concluding Sentence. It has already been said that the opening sentence is the most natural position for the theme; and that what is stated in the opening sentence is sometimes restated in other words in the concluding sentence. Even when no such restatement is made, it adds to the energy of the paragraph if the concluding sentence is made to contain some brief comment on what has gone before - or a summing up of the paragraph as a whole - or something that will make the reader feel that the paragraph is closed.

III. Copy out of the Text the equivalents of the following word combinations.

Model 1. Noun + Prep. Attr.

e.g. unity + of purpose - единство цели

  1. структура абзаца

  2. положение темы

  3. тема абзаца

  4. намерение автора

Model 2. Noun + Part. I

e.g. the sentence + embodying the theme

- предложение, воплощающее тему

  1. предложение, подводящее к теме постепенно

  2. первое предложение, стоящее во главе

  3. предложения, объясняющие основной факт

Model 3. Verb + Direct Object

e.g. to keep + the reader's interest

- удерживать интерес читателя

  1. захватить внимание читателя

  2. содержать какие-нибудь краткие комментарии по ...

  3. объяснить кому-нибудь основной факт

  4. вести сознание читателя

Model 4. Verb + Prep. Object

e.g. to deal + with one subject at a time

- иметь дело только с одной темой

  1. состоять из серии предложений

  2. подводить к основной мысли

  3. усиливать впечатление (от абзаца)

IV. Use suffixes:

-ty; -tion; -sion; -ment to form Nouns out of the following Verbs; to state; to compose; to conclude; to relate; to unite, to repeat; to intend; to arrange; to permit; to explain; to protect;

-ly to form Adverbs out of the following Adjectives:

close, certain, natural, practical, common.

Give Russian equivalents for the newly formed words.

V. Answer the following questions:

  1. What is a paragraph and what does it consist of?

  2. What do the sentences contained in the paragraph explain?

  3. What is "the theme" of the paragraph?

  4. What does the unity of a paragraph mean?

  5. What should the unity of paragraph be protected by?

  6. In what relation should the sentence embodying the theme stand to other sentences?

  7. Is there any strict rule as to the position of the theme in a paragraph?

  8. For what reasons can the theme be repeated in the last sentence or elsewhere?

  9. What are the reasons for putting the theme at the beginning of a paragraph?

  10. Give your reasons why the theme can be put at the close of the paragraph?

  11. What is the role of the concluding sentence?

VI. Summarise the article.

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