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1.

TEXT I. SUMMARISING

2.

TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

3.

TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

4.

TEXT IV.

5.

TEXT V.

6.

TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

7.

TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

8.

TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

9.

TEXT IX.

10.

TEXT X.

11.

TEXT XI.

12.

TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

13.

TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

14.

TEXT XIV.

15.

TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

16.

(After Viren C. a visitor from India)

I. Read the text and find answers to the following questions;

  1. What was the purpose of V.C.'s visit to Moscow?

  2. What publishing houses did he visit?

  3. Why is there little colour in our newspapers?

  4. Are printing establishments government owned or privatised?

  5. What machines run at the Krasny Proletary printing house?

  6. What can the company export?

The flight from Frankfurt took a little over three hours to reach Moscow airport. It was a great relief to see that three senior members of the Moscow State University of Printing were present to welcome me.

The drive to the city was pleasant. After over an hour's drive around Moscow I was taken to the University's guest house, situated in a multistory building. The flat was comfortable with all the usual facilities including a TVset, a fridge well-stocked with food and other necessities.

My programme during the five-day visit included among other things visits to some of the leading printing and publishing houses in and around Moscow.

The Editor-in-Chief of Moscovsky Komsomolets told me that while the circulation of other papers, such as Pravda and Izvestia, was falling, the circulation of their paper had increased to 1.5 million copies daily. Even though the printing establishment is owned by the government, the Editor is critical of the government and the administrative policies and supports local industry.

The publishing house brings out several other publications besides Moscovsky Komsomolets. There is very little colour in the paper, but the Editor is confident that colour is very much a thing of the future and the use of it will 'certainly increase with the growth of advertising.

The Director of Moscovskaya Pravda printing house told me that the majority of small print shops had been privatised. Now, there are only five or seven large establishments, employing about 1,000 people each, that are government-owned. The Moscovskaya Pravda printing house prints six dailies including the Evening Moscow paper, several weeklies and periodicals. It consumes over 150 tonnes of newsprint every day, with a total circulation of 5 million copies.

Another interesting visit was a tour of the 125-year-old printing house, Krasny Proletary, specialising in printing books and magazines and currently printing 110,000 books every day as well as nearly 300,000 brochures, paper-backs, calendars, albums, etc. Over 1,000 workers in two shifts run both letterpress and offset machines. The machines were mostly imported from Germany. A battery of Planeta, two-colour and five-colour Heidelberg presses produce high guality work. Web offset presses for printing black and white books are now locally made; automatic computerised type-setting has replaced hot metal, banned for environmental reasons.

The company would be glad to cooperate with Indian publishers for printing textbooks and general books for export to African and other neighbouring countries. The cost of Russian paper is lower than in India. Russian publishers import superior quality art paper mostly from Finland.

(to be continued)

II. Write the plan of the story.

III. Summarise the story.