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1.

TEXT I. SUMMARISING

2.

TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

3.

TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

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TEXT IV.

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TEXT V.

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TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

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TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

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TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

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TEXT IX.

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TEXT X.

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TEXT XI.

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TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

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TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

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TEXT XIV.

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TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

16.

I. Read the article. Answer the question: What do you think "eco-labelling" is?

ECO-LABELLING

The European Union (the EU) is full of good ideas. Eco-labelling is one such idea. Designed to give the consumer sufficient information to choose products which are environmentally sound, eco-labelling was supposed to apply criteria which look at the full life-cycle of a product.

When the work on paper products started, it became clear very quickly that some member states had difficulties in understanding this approach.

Some representatives suggested that only paper products produced from low category wastepaper should be allowed to get an eco-label. They had no interest in studying the wider environmental impact of paper production. Although industry representatives managed to convince most member states that a more objective analysis was needed, preconceived views of what was "acceptable" to consumers won out in the end. The result is a set of environmental criteria in favour of recycled products.

Some administrators of the eco-labelling scheme went as far as to say that it was unacceptable that a tissue product containing virgin fibre could get the eco-label. Farewell sound science, good bye, objective analysis!

To say that "Recycled fibres are good and virgin fibres are bad" is not only ignorant but bad for the environment. It also distorts production and trading patterns in northern and central Europe. Or is the EU proposing to shut down the Finnish and Swedish pulp and paper industries and feed the population on handouts and subsidies alone?

II. Answer the following questions.

  1. What is eco-labelling designed for?

  2. What difficulties did the EU face when working on environmental criteria?

  3. What did industry representatives demand?

  4. Why does the author come to the conclusion that the EU is proposing to shut down the Finnish and Swedish pulp and paper industries?

III. Write the plan of the article.

IV. Summarise the article.