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1.

TEXT I. SUMMARISING

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TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

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TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

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TEXT IV.

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TEXT V.

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TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

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TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

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TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

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TEXT IX.

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TEXT X.

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TEXT XI.

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TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

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TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

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TEXT XIV.

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TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

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I. Read the article. When reading it, make notes.

THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

The Inter City Express (ICE) glides smoothly out of the main railroad station. The head conductor gazes at a small monitor. Recently she was made responsible for printing, folding and distributing a newspaper, in addition to checking tickets.

The members' of the small editorial team on the other end of the transmission are busily putting together the latest edition of the ICE-press, the world's fastest newspaper. As soon as the articles have been finished and laid out, the data is relayed to ICE trains all across Germany.

The ICE-press is printed in the train and handed out to the first-class passengers.

The computer starts working "Receiving data" flashes on-screen. Suddenly the compartment - comprising barely 45 square feet of space - in transformed into Germany's smallest printing shop. The laser printer labors quietly in its corner; a specially-built metal framework keeps it steady when the train travels around tight curves. Slowly, it disgorges the first pages of the newspaper.

This joint product of the Spiegel press and German Rail appears every day. Production of the ICE-press is completely digital, and the procedure is elaborate but relatively simple. Shortly after the contents of the newspaper are ready, its four pages are transmitted to a central server at IBM in Heidelberg.

From there, German Rail relays the data by radio to its high speed trains, where the information is processed by the head conductor's PC. Printing can now begin.

Before launching this project, German Rail organized a competition for new ideas. Der Spiegel beat all competitors with an astonishingly simple trick that enables production of a newspaper with an appealing layout. The contents are printed onto pre-produced sheets that already contain the header, weather map, ads and column borders in color. All that's missing is the news itself, which arrives by radio and is printed in black.

The railway newspaper was Der Spiegel executive Degler's brainchild, and he has a lot of other innovative ideas in store. For example, he says, digital printers could be located everywhere - in front of every sports stadium, in supermarkets. The contents of conventional newspapers usually have to be printed first and then distributed, but in future it could be exactly the other way around: the information would first be distributed electronically, then printed locally. Digitization makes it all possible.

The ICE-press is only the beginning. But in order for the idea to really pan out, digital printers have to get quicker, cheaper and more efficient. Right now the laser printer used in the ICE trains only churns out a few copies per minute. That isn't nearly fast enough to supply a stadium full of fans, notes Degler. "But who knows what will be possible in five years?" he says. Degler envisions an entirely new style of newspaper - one You'll print yourself - right in your bedroom, if need be.

A color printer could even be included in the subscription', continues Degler. "Then you'd get your own, personalized newspaper delivered on the spot". Sports fans would receive greater detail on athletic events, investors more financial news. Degler calls this "on-demand printing" - in other words, printing only what the customer wants.

Other newspapers are also trying to attract customers with special editions distributed by unusual channels. For example, stock-market news is transmitted by fax or radio. The paper goes to press at 3 a.m., after Wall Street closes and the Tokyo Stock Exchange opens for business.

Every week, new trains are equipped and more conductors trained to distribute the newspaper. Advertising space in the paper is sold out months in advance.

ICE passengers say "It's a nice service, but is no replacement for a normal daily newspaper, four pages of politics, sports, business and cultural news aren't enough, but it's a worthwhile project because the paper is very up to date".

II. Find answers to the following questions:

  1. What do the letters ICE stand for?

  2. What is the head conductor responsible for?

  3. Where is the ICE-press prepared?

  4. Where is the ICE-press printed?

  5. What is the head conductor's compartment equipped with?

  6. What is the procedure of producing the ICE-press?

  7. What trick makes a newspaper fast and its layout appealing?

  8. What other ideas has the executive of Der Spiegel?

  9. What are the ways of trasmitting news?

III. Write the plan of the article.

IV. Summarise the article.