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1.

TEXT I. SUMMARISING

2.

TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

3.

TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

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TEXT IV.

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TEXT V.

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TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

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TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

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TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

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TEXT IX.

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TEXT X.

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TEXT XI.

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TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

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TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

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TEXT XIV.

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TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

16.

I. Read the article and suggest the title for it.

Every day, thousands of visitors stream past the glass pyramids designed by the Chinese-American architect I.M.Pei and into the most famous museum in the world, the Louvre in Paris. Inside this old palace, art enthusiasts can wonder at countless exhibits covering eight centuries of art. They respectfully admire the brush technique of Van Gogh, Renoir and Salvador Dali, the eclecticism of Andy Warhol, and the pop-art of Roy Lichtenstein.

What they may not suspect is that some of the paintings they are looking at are actually well-executed fakes.

But these are fakes that the curators of the Louvre know all about. Those in charge of the museum are not members of a well-organized band of smugglers operating worldwide: they only want their exhibits to look their best. Paintings must be restored from time to time, but rather than leaving a blank spot on the gallery wall, they are "secretly" switched in the night for reproductions - facsimiles produced on digital presses.

All over the world, museums are having their Old Masters reproduced digitally. As a result of this new technology, the large-format printing business is booming.

Digital printing is ideal for reproducing artwork, partly because it is so versatile: printing can be done on plastic, cloth or glass - whatever medium the artist originally chose. High-quality prints of these paintings are scanned, digitized and then printed by inkjet or airbrush printers on real canvasses. Of course, the copies do not correspond 100% to the originals. But since the painting are displayed behind glass anyway, an average member of the public, viewing it from a normal distance, will not notice the difference.

Works of art may even be replaced permanently by digital reproductions, because the theft and damage insurance premiums for some are so huge that the museum can no longer afford to display the originals. In the case of such works, a small sign indicates that they are legally displayed forgeries.

Digital printing technology is suitable for more than such exotic applications, however. In fact, digital technology opens up a wide range of new landscapes, particularly for outdoor advertising.

The process is also ideal for large scale advertising campaigns for department stores and museums. Large surfaces can only be processed with digital technology. Color inkjet printers can print more than 500 square feet per hour, so they can produce a 2000-square-foot surface area in only four hours. This is an enormous increase over the performance of classic screen-printing techniques.

Digitally-produced posters also last longer, without their color and brightness fading. Customers attach great importance to the ability of the printed plastic sheets, nets, and posters used for outdoor advertising to resist UV radiation.

The new digital-printing methods can be employed for both outdoor and indoor projects. Why not produce a large, 100-foot by 45-foot picture as a huge map that people can walk on? Advertising pictures produced on cloth are used with success at various trade shows.

Since floors (and even carpets up to a fifth of an inch thick) can now be digitally printed, the process is growing in importance at trade shows. The car maker BMW, for example, astonished visitors to the International Automobile Salon in Geneva with four printed-glass walls that were 11 feet high, 46 feet wide, and four-tenths of an inch thick. But the real show-stopper was that the pictures were transparent.

A special digital process for printing on glass in order to obtain the transparent effect for BMW, was developed. First the motifs were digitally printed on transparent, scratchproof plastic sheets. These, in turn, were laminated onto the glass panes. A second glass wall with a milky finish covered with a blank, mother-of-pearl transparency was then positioned at a distance of four inches behind the imaged glass wall. This way, the impression was created that the glass wall was lit from within. The motifs acquired a transparent, light-filled depth.

II. Find answers to the following questions:

  1. Why is it necessary from time to time to replace works of art by reproductions?

  2. What technology is used for producing facsimiles?

  3. What other applications is large-format digital printing suitable for?

  4. What materials can digital printing be done on?

  5. What are the advantages of the new digital-printing methods?

III. Write the plan of the article.

IV. Summarise the article.