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TEXT I. SUMMARISING

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TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

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TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

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TEXT IV.

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TEXT V.

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TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

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TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

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TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

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TEXT IX.

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TEXT X.

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TEXT XI.

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TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

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TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

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TEXT XIV.

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TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

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I. Read the text and suggest the title for it.

Each currency note is a work of art, completed in many stages. While the paper sheets are being formed from pulp (consisting of water, clay filler, and cotton fiber), watermarks are formed by a screen, and metallic security threads are inserted. The finished sheets are then run through multiple printing steps. First, pastel background patterns - such as the delicate blue used for some notes - are applied simultaneously to both sides of each bill, using an indirect letterpress process. Next, the hand-etched plate, with the fine gravure of the portrait, is pressed onto each note. Finally, each note is numbered, using roller stamps.

The bank notes are now finished, but they are still in sheets. A machine cuts the sheets into individual bills, then bundles and shrinkwraps the currency for transport. Counting systems at the input and output ends of the machine ensure that every note is accounted for. The finished money is then locked in a vault to await pickup by an armored car.

The tight security dictated by customers is a constant reminder of the company's unique license to print money. No unauthorized individuals are allowed access to the money press. Outsiders are forbidden to view currency up close at any time during the production process. And details about production and the company's clients are locked up as tightly as money in a vault.

The company supplies paper currency to 50 national banks around the world, plus bank notes and securities for 80 different countries. A lot of money goes out the door, but a lot of money comes in, too: the company's current annual sales total about 1.3 billion in all branches of its business, including 418 million in the bank notes and securities division. The company has over 4,000 employees.

One topic that is discussed on every street corner these days is the future of money. While politicians continue to wrangle over economic stability criteria and deadlines for the European monetary union, the company has already worked out scenarios to take advantage of the era of the euro. We could start tomorrow.

A lot of money is involved here - it's estimated that it will cost about 1.2 billion to meet all of the EU countries' initial need for euro currency.

The question is: who will get the job? One thing is certain - each country will meet its own currency needs for the introduction of the euro.

What technique should be used to print the euro? Experts differ on the answer. The German mark, for instance, is printed on a sheetfed printing press, with paper sheets being fed into the press one-by-one. The French franc, on the other hand, is printed on a web press. Experts can tell the difference: the raised relief of the ink is higher on sheetfed-printed bills.

This company is widely diversified, and printing bank notes and securities comprises only about 20 percent of sales. This high-tech company makes the rest of its money from far different products, including manufacturing an entire line of currency-related equipment such as machines for counting, sorting and checking.

The company also manufactures money that does not take the form of brightly-colored cotton notes, but rather plastic and magnetic coding. These days, it seems like almost .everyone uses electronic transaction cards for banking, making phone calls, even filing health insurance claims. Today this progressive company is the world leader in electronic payment transactions.

The printing company has good reason to dream about the future. "Why can't we have just one card for everything - for making phone calls, withdrawing money and shopping? This will definitely happen within the next few years". Customers some day may be able to program their transaction cards themselves, creating customized cards for many uses.

Transaction cards and related equipment already comprises 48 percent of sales. And a much bigger business has already appeared on the horizon: the electronic checkbook, a card that can be loaded with cash.

Gone will be the days of fishing through your pockets for change. Some day you will just swipe your card at the newsstand to pay for your paper. The electronic chips and card readers will be made.

II. Find answers to the following questions:

  1. How are watermarks formed?

  2. What printing process is used to apply background patterns?

  3. In what way are portraits done on the plate?

  4. What other steps are bills run through?

  5. Does the printing company make money by making money?

  6. What is the company's attitude towards the euro currency?

  7. What technique is used for printing money?

  8. What other products does the company make?

  9. What are electronic transaction cards used for?

  10. What does the company dream about?

III. Divide the article into sense groups. Express the main idea of each sense group in one or two sentences.

IV. Summarise the article using your notes.