..



..
1.

TEXT I. SUMMARISING

2.

TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

3.

TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

4.

TEXT IV.

5.

TEXT V.

6.

TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

7.

TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

8.

TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

9.

TEXT IX.

10.

TEXT X.

11.

TEXT XI.

12.

TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

13.

TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

14.

TEXT XIV.

15.

TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

16.

I. Read the article and while reading it make notes.

Digital printing - ink-jet, electrostatic, electrophotographic and thermal transfer - is going through a period of explosive growth.

Electrostatic technology is becoming a star performer in wide-format graphics printing. Some years ago, the process was limited to electrostatic plotting of engineering drawings, architectural plans and cartography. Falling costs of data processing and storage, coupled with the development of effective RIPs (Raster Image Processors), led electrostatic into short-run graphics for billboards, vehicle liveries and exhibitions. And almost overnight, graphics printing took over from plotting as the industry driver.

As a consequence, we have seen the launch of new liquid inks with high colour strength and outdoor durability, specialist transfer media to enable application onto vinyl and plastic, and electrostatic printers with faster output, higher resolution and improved consistency. The next break-through is the ability of this technology to transfer graphic images onto materials such as plastic, wood, ceramic tiles, ceramic table-ware, sports goods and a variety of fabrics for the textile industry, This will shorten the lengthy, costly prepress steps, will provide short-run advantages over current methods and will open up applications areas that have not yet been entered. Could we be about to see the start of distributed printing and proofing of customized fabric designs in the fashion industry?

Electrostatic output is ideal for many applications. The elimination of costs for film planning/output and screen or plate making means electrostatic is very cost-effective against screen printing or wide-format offset for short runs, up to 50 prints per day.

The latest electrostatic machines, with four-colour output exceeding 50 m2 /hour, are selling faster than ever before, mainly to photoshops, repro shops, new digital print bureaux and entrepreneurs. And they are beginning to sell to screen printers, who can use them for new short-run and fast-turn-around business which was previously inaccessible.

Sublimation describes a change of state directly from a solid to a gas without the normal intervening liquid state. Examples of materials which sublime are naphthalene (moth-balls), camphor and some household air-fresheners.

Sublimation transfers can now be produced by electrostatic printing, simply by replacing the conventional ink in the machine with sublimation ink. There is no need for any special substrate, as normal 85 gsm electrostatic paper medium can be used. After printing, the printed transfers are either cut to size from the roll or used in a reel-to-reel heat transfer machine for textile decoration.

Next, the printed side of the paper medium is brought into contact with the receiver substrate under pressure and heat (typically 150-215C). Under these conditions, the dyestuff in the ink sublimes and diffuses across and into the receiver layer, where it condenses. Because the sublimation dye has actually penetrated deep within the receiver layer, it is protected from physical or chemical attack and partly shielded from ambient UV radiation which would otherwise cause rapid degradation (bleaching) of the dyestuff. Unlike conventional electrostatic prints, there is no need for over-lamination.

The only requirement of the receiver substrate is that it incorporates a suitable medium for the dyestuff to diffuse into and condense; normally this is a polyester fibre or resin. Electrostatic printing is now able to break into a whole new arena of decoration opportunities.

II. Find answers to the following questions:

  1. What printing does digital printing include?

  2. What is printed by electrostatic?

  3. What inks were developed for the process?

  4. What materials can the technology transfer graphic images onto?

  5. What advantages over current methods does the technology provide?

  6. What is the output of the latest electrostatic machines?

  7. Who are the buyers of the machines?

  8. What is sublimation?

  9. How can sublimation transfers be produced?

  10. What is the only requirement of the receiver substrate?

III. Summarise the article from your notes.