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1.

TEXT I. SUMMARISING

2.

TEXT II. STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPH

3.

TEXT III. NOTES ON PRINTING IN RUSSIA

4.

TEXT IV.

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TEXT V.

6.

TEXT VI. LARGE-FORMAT RAPIDA A BIG HIT

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TEXT VII. ECO-LABELLING

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TEXT VIII. THE WORLD'S FASTEST NEWSPAPER

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TEXT IX.

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TEXT X.

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TEXT XI.

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TEXT XII. ECOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

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TEXT XIII. THROUGH ELECTROSTATIC TO THE SUBLIME

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TEXT XIV.

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TEXT XV. AN EXCITING FUTURE BECKONS THE PRINTER

16.

I. Read the article and suggest the title for it.

The first step in any waste reduction is to examine the conditions under which a press crew must operate. Only v j i m all of the negative conditions have been revealed can corrective action be taken.

Most of the problems are probably due to ineffective maintenance programmes. Solenoids stick, dampeners are out of balance, rollers not set, fountain solutions contaminated, fountain keys out of set, dampening curves incorrect, automatic systems inoperative ... Most of these conditions are long-si; Wing problems, ignored because the crew has learned to "'cope".

The quality of your ink has a direct relationship to waste. Most inks can be adjusted to match the proof, but the problems with non-compatible inks are that some take too long! Js clean up on startups, some emulsify with the least variation ink/water balance; some have great pigment strength with low compatibility to water, others are weak and cannot tolerate any v: per imbalance; some dry too slowly and dirty up the press. This is only a partial list of problems that affect waste and are ignored because crews have learned to cope.

One of the critical factors with paper is the ability or inability to absorb changes in tension without web breaks. The real criteria for evaluating paper are the characteristics f its printing surface. Basically, can that paper produce a quality reproduction? Every pressman can tell you which paper prints best, runs best, etc.

Standard procedures are the most critically ignored fundamentals in any pressroom. The pressman should follow proven methods.

Crew strength (manning) is a key issue. Crew sizes have a direct relationship to waste performance. In most newspapers and commercial work, 70 to 85 per cent of the total waste is run during makeready and start-up. Each start-up requires a number of standard adjustments. Let's say that ten adjustments are required for each printing unit. With a four-man crew running an eight-unit press, this could take 15 to 20 minutes, and during all that time the press is running! That is the problem: the leaner the crew, the longer the press runs to waste during start-up.

All industrial workers are in tune with what they feel is management support as opposed to managerial pressure. Obviously a manager must be trained to be supportive.

Whatever the negative conditions are, you must identify them. Continuing to allow negative factors to swell the amount of waste is intolerable in these days. But the most neglected factor is crew training.

You have already started the training by having that first waste reduction meeting of the press crew. You should hold the meetings every week until the negatives have been eliminated. By then you will have cut your waste by 25 per cent. Believe me!

II. Answers the following questions:

  1. What is the first step in waste reduction?

  2. What negative mechanical conditions of press lead to waste?

  3. How can ink quality affect printing?

  4. What are the real criteria for evaluating paper?

  5. What should the pressman's attitude towards proven methods be?

  6. What other factors lead to waste?

  7. Why do you think crew training is the most neglected factor?

  8. Do you think regular waste reduction meetings are the proper approach to the problem?

III. Divide the text into separate sense units. Entitle them.

IV. Summarise the article.