..



..
1.

2.

2.1.

2.2.

3.

4.

Text 1

5.

Text 2
What are proverbs?

6.

Text 3

7.

Text 4
Cambridge

8.

Text 5
Bank holidays in Britan

9.

Text 6

10.

Text 7

11.

Text 8

12.

Text 9

13.

Text 10

14.

Text 11

15.

Text 12
Edinburg

16.

Text 13
Glimpses of the history of America

17.

Text 14
Tower of London

18.

Text 15
Smoking

19.

Text 16

20.

Text 17

21.

Text 18

22.

Text 19
Media ownership and freedom of expression

23.

Text 20

24.

Text 21

25.

Text 22
The battle for readers

26.

Text 23
Radio and television broadcasting

27.

Text 24
National newspapers

28.

Text 25
Television and satellite broadcasting

29.

Text 26
Radio

30.

Text 27

31.

Text 28

32.

Text 29

33.

Text 30

34.

Text 31
News vs. news people

35.

Text 32

36.

Text 33

37.

Text 34

38.

Text 35

39.

Text 36
Pocahontas

40.

Text 37

41.

Text 38

42.

Text 39
The causes of crime

43.

Text 40

44.

Text 41

45.

Text 42
The lost colony

46.

Text 43
Old Hickory

47.

Text 44
The war of 1812

48.

Text 45
A long time ago

49.

Text 46
George Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion

50.

Any one who wishes to become a good writer should try, before he allows himself to be tempted by the more showy qualities, to be direct, simple, brief, and lucid.

This general principle may be translated into practical rules in the domain of vocabulary as follows:

Prefer the familiar word to the far-fetched.

Prefer the concrete word to the abstract.

Prefer the single word to the circumlocution.

Prefer the short word to the long.

Prefer the Saxon word to the Romance. (The Romance languages are those whose grammatical structure, as well as part at least of their vocabulary, is directly descended from Latin - as Italian, French, Spanish. Under Romance words we include all that English has borrowed from Latin either directly or through the Romance languages).

These rules are given roughly in order of merit; the last is also the least. It is true that it is often given alone, as a sort of compendium of all the others. In some sense it is that: the writer whose percentage of Saxon words is high will generally be found to have fewer words that are out of the way, long, or abstract, and fewer periphrases, than another; and conversely.

The words to be chosen are those that the probable reader is sure to understand without waste of time and thought; a good proportion of them will in fact be Saxon, but mainly because it happens that most abstract words are Romance. The truth is all five rules would be often found to give the same answer about the same word or set of words.

:

  1. What synonyms for the word brief do you know?
  2. What are the antonyms of the words: concrete, short, familiar? What is the function of the verb should in: Any one who wishes to become a good writer should try... to be direct, simple, brief and lucid?
  3. What kind of predicate is may be translated?
  4. What is the grammatical form of the word fewer? What are comparative and superlative degrees of the word Little?
  5. What is the plural of compendium? The singular of periphrases?
  6. What is the grammatical form of the verb to find in: ... the writer whose percentage of Saxon words is high will generally be found to have fewer words that are out of the way?

:

  1. short, not long.
  2. abstract, long, far-fetched, unknown.
  3. should is a modal verb here,
  4. compound Verbal Predicate.
  5. Comparative degree. Less, least.
  6. compendia (Latin); periphrasis (Greek).
  7. Future Simple (Indefinite), Passive Voice.