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What are proverbs?

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Cambridge

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Bank holidays in Britan

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Edinburg

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Glimpses of the history of America

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Tower of London

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Smoking

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Media ownership and freedom of expression

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The battle for readers

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Radio and television broadcasting

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National newspapers

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Television and satellite broadcasting

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Radio

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News vs. news people

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Pocahontas

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The causes of crime

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The lost colony

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Old Hickory

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The war of 1812

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A long time ago

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George Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion

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Before man had flown in space it was thought that his physical and mental capabilities might be affected by long periods of weightlessness and that he might be endangered by high levels of radiation. Yuri Gagarin's first flight in April 1961 showed that man could live in space and, although this journey only lasted for 108 minutes, it gave encouragement to those interested in the future of manned spaceflight. In fact most of the early fears about man's health in space have proved groundless, and although several odd medical effects have been observed, none has seriously affected man's ability for useful work. All astronauts undergo strenuous training to prepare them for the experience of spaceflight but, despite this, most astronauts suffer from space sickness early in their flights. This effect, similar to sea sickness, soon wears off, and there appears to be no medical reason why man cannot live in space for long periods of time. A constant check is kept on the health of all astronauts during their mission. Small medical detectors which monitor their heartbeats, pulse rates, breathing and temperature are taped to their bodies.

All food eaten in space so far has been prepared on earth. The alternative possibilities of making food from waste products or growing it in space have received little serious consideration. The first space foods were simply baby bite-sized squares or in a form that could be mixed with cold water and squeezed into the mouth. The squares were coated to prevent them breaking up into small pieces, and their corners were rounded to prevent them cutting the astronauts' mouths. Later astronauts ate sticky foods with a spoon, and hot as well as cold water was available for making up the dried meals. These two developments have made eating in space much more pleasant.

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  1. Yury Gagarin's first spaceflight showed:

    a) scientists could develop weapons in space.

    b) human beings could survive well in space.

    c) astronauts would not suffer from space sickness

    d) all the scientific equipment worked well.

  2. How is the health of human beings affected in space?

    a) The effects can be unpleasant but harmless.

    b) There is a slight risk of heart problems.

    c) Longer spaceflights are more dangerous to health.

    d) Space sickness lasts throughout the flight.

  3. What do we learn of early space food?

    a) It was surprisingly tasty.

    b) The edges cut the astronauts' mouths. .

    c) It was eaten cold

    d) It was inconvenient because it dissolved.

  4. How has space food improved since the first spaceflights?

    a) Bad food has been cut from the diet.

    b) The food is now produced in bite-sized squares.

    c) Some normal food is now available

    d) There is greater variety of foods available.

  5. Small detectors attached to astronauts' bodies serve

    a) to register their pulse, temperature and other parameters.

    b) to monitor the level of radiation in a space station.

    c) to diminish the effects of weightlessness.

    d) as microphones to facilitate communication.

  6. How do astronauts eat their food, nowadays?

    a) They mix it with cold water and squeeze it into the mouth.

    b) They dissolve it in hot water and eat it with a spoon.

    c) They break it up in small pieces and then swallow it.

    d) They suck it from a special tube.