..



..
1.

2.

2.1.

2.2.

3.

4.

Text 1

5.

Text 2
What are proverbs?

6.

Text 3

7.

Text 4
Cambridge

8.

Text 5
Bank holidays in Britan

9.

Text 6

10.

Text 7

11.

Text 8

12.

Text 9

13.

Text 10

14.

Text 11

15.

Text 12
Edinburg

16.

Text 13
Glimpses of the history of America

17.

Text 14
Tower of London

18.

Text 15
Smoking

19.

Text 16

20.

Text 17

21.

Text 18

22.

Text 19
Media ownership and freedom of expression

23.

Text 20

24.

Text 21

25.

Text 22
The battle for readers

26.

Text 23
Radio and television broadcasting

27.

Text 24
National newspapers

28.

Text 25
Television and satellite broadcasting

29.

Text 26
Radio

30.

Text 27

31.

Text 28

32.

Text 29

33.

Text 30

34.

Text 31
News vs. news people

35.

Text 32

36.

Text 33

37.

Text 34

38.

Text 35

39.

Text 36
Pocahontas

40.

Text 37

41.

Text 38

42.

Text 39
The causes of crime

43.

Text 40

44.

Text 41

45.

Text 42
The lost colony

46.

Text 43
Old Hickory

47.

Text 44
The war of 1812

48.

Text 45
A long time ago

49.

Text 46
George Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion

50.

The Spaniards were the earliest Europeans to sample tobacco. Accounts of Columbus's first voyage in 1492 speak of the natives of Cuba using smoking reeds, which were a kind of primitive pipe. Most of the Indian races of the American mainland were given to smoking, partly purely for pleasure, but partly, also, for ceremonial purposes - as with the celebrated Red Indian pipe of peace.

Once introduced to Europe, the habit of smoking spread round the world. Barely fifty years after its discovery Portuguese sailors introduced smoking into the East Indies and Japan. When tobacco first reached England is uncertain, but it seems likely that small quantities were imported in the earlier half of the 16th century, many years before the name of Sir Walter Raleigh became associated with it. For a long time there were two distinct schools of thought about smoking. Some learned men maintained that it had a medical value, acting as a disinfectant. Others regarded smoking as a badge of immorality, believing that it went with free-thinking and loose-living. King James I held strong views on the subject and imposed heavy duties on imported tobacco. But the tobacco plant was naturalized in southern England and Ireland. At one time in the 17th century there were as many as 6000 plantations and from these the needs of the increasing numbers of English smokers were supplied.

Until about 1900 smoking was almost entirely a masculine habit. Many people, including Queen Victoria, strongly disapproved of tobacco.