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What are proverbs?

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Cambridge

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Bank holidays in Britan

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Edinburg

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Glimpses of the history of America

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Tower of London

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Smoking

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Media ownership and freedom of expression

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The battle for readers

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Radio and television broadcasting

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National newspapers

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Television and satellite broadcasting

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Radio

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News vs. news people

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Pocahontas

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The causes of crime

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The lost colony

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Old Hickory

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The war of 1812

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A long time ago

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George Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion

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A kind of adversary relationship between print journalism and electronic journalism exists and has existed for many years in the United States. Innumerable newspaper critics seem to insist that broadcast journalism be like their journalism and measured by their standards. It cannot be. The two are more complementary than competitive, but they are different.

The journalism of sight and sound is the only truly new form of journalism to come along. It is a mass medium, a universal medium: as the American public-education system is the world's first effort to teach everyone, so far as that is possible. It has serious built-in limitations as well as advantages, compared with print. Broadcast news operates in linear time, newspapers in lateral space. This means that a newspaper or magazine reader can be his own editor in a vital sense. He can glance over it and decide what to read, what to pass by. The TV viewer is a restless prisoner, obliged to sit through what does not interest him to get to what may interest him. While it is being shown, a local bus accident has as much impact, seems as important, as an outbreak of a big war. He can do little about this, little about the viewer's unconscious resentments.

Everyone in America watches television to some degree, including most of those who pretend they don't. Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter was right, he said there is no highbrow in any lowbrow, but there is a fair amount of lowbrow in every highbrow. Television is a combination mostly of lowbrow and middlebrow, but there is more highbrow offered than highbrows will admit or even seek to know about.