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What are proverbs?

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Cambridge

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Bank holidays in Britan

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Edinburg

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Glimpses of the history of America

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Tower of London

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Smoking

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Media ownership and freedom of expression

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The battle for readers

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Radio and television broadcasting

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National newspapers

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Television and satellite broadcasting

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Radio

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News vs. news people

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Pocahontas

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The causes of crime

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The lost colony

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Old Hickory

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The war of 1812

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A long time ago

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George Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion

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There have been: many theories in the history of criminology, trying to explain the causes of crime. The oldest ones were based on theology and ethics, later came the efforts to explain crime on scientific, rather than theological, grounds. Various biological, environmental and even climatic theories have been advanced since the 18th century.

In the 20th-century the authors of psychological and psychiatric theories Bernard Gluck and William Healy claimed that about one-fourth of a typical convict population is psychotic, neurotic, or emotionally unstable and another one-fourth is mentally deficient. These emotional and mental conditions do not automatically make people criminals, but do, it is believed, make them more prone to criminality.

Some modem theorists relate the incidence of crime to the general state of a culture, especially the impact of economic crises, wars, and revolutions and the general sense of insecurity and uprootedness to which these forces give rise. As a society becomes more unsettled and its people more restless and fearful of the future, the crime rate tends to rise.

Since the mid-20th century, the notion that crime can be explained by any single theory has fallen into disfavour among scientists. Instead, experts incline to so-called multiple factor, or multiple causation theories. They reason that crime springs usually from a multiplicity of conflicting and converging influences - biological, psychological, cultural, economic, and political. The multiple causation explanations seem more credible than the earlier, simpler theories. An understanding of the causes of crime is still elusive, however, because the interrelationship of causes is difficult to determine.