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What are proverbs?

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Cambridge

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Bank holidays in Britan

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Edinburg

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Glimpses of the history of America

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Tower of London

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Smoking

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Media ownership and freedom of expression

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The battle for readers

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Radio and television broadcasting

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National newspapers

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Television and satellite broadcasting

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Radio

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News vs. news people

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Pocahontas

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The causes of crime

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The lost colony

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Old Hickory

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The war of 1812

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A long time ago

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George Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion

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Between 1803 and 1815 Britain and France were at war. Both countries' warships interfered-with American trade. They stopped American merchant ships and sometimes seized their cargoes. Americans became angry. They were especially angry at the British because the British took seamen off American ships and forced them to serve in the British navy. In June 1812, Congress declared war on Britain. In the early months of this. War of 1812 American ships won a number of fights at sea. But the much stronger British navy soon gained complete control of the coastal waters of the United States and blockaded American ports. American attempts to invade British-ruled Canada ended in disaster. Even more humiliating for the Americans, British forces captured and burned Washington, their new capital city.

In December 1814, the United States and Britain signed a treaty of peace in Europe. Two weeks later, before the news reached America, British forces attacked the city of New Orleans. They were defeated by American soldiers led by General Andrew Jackson.

In many ways the whole of the War of 1812 was as pointless as this last battle. But it taught Americans an important lesson. The British navy's wartime blockade of United States ports had cut off the imported European manufactured goods upon which the country relied. This forced Americans to begin making goods of their own and so gave a start to American manufacturing industry.

Thomas Jefferson was one of many people who had been against the growth of industry in the United States. Now he saw how important it was to the future safety and prosperity of the country. Soon after the War of 1812 he wrote: We must now place the manufacturer by the side of the agriculturist.